About the Initiative Evaluation

Resources & References

Key resources

Here are a few resources that we have found particularly helpful, or that we think might be particularly helpful to others who want to support high-quality out-of-school time.


Out-of-school time in Oregon
Regional and national out-of-school time resources


Afterschool Alliance. (n.d.). Oregon after 3 p.m. http://afterschoolalliance.org/AA3PM/data/geo/Oregon/overview

The Annie E. Casey Foundation. (2019, September 24). Children living in high-poverty, low-opportunity neighborhoods. https://www.aecf.org/resources/children-living-in-high-poverty-low-opportunity-neighborhoods/

Akiva, T., Philips, S., & McGovern, G. (2013). Youth voice. The Forum for Youth Investment.

Au, W. (2016). Meritocracy 2.0: High-stakes, standardized testing as racial project of neoliberal multiculturalism. Educational Policy, 30(1), 39-62.

Auerbach, S. (2009). Walking the walk: Portraits in leadership for family engagement in urban schools. School Community Journal, 19(1), 9–31. 

Barnett, R. C., & Gareis, K. C. (2006, June 1). Antecedents and correlates of parental after-school concerns: Exploring a newly identified work-family stressor. American Behavioral Scientist, 49(10), 1382–1399. https://doi.org/10.1177/0002764206286561

Bouffard, S. M., Westmoreland, H., O’Carroll, K., & Little, P. M. (2011). Engaging families in out-of-school time programs. In H. Kreider & H. Westmoreland (Eds.), Promising practices for family engagement in out-of-school time (pp. 3-20). Information Age Publishing.

Card, D., & Giuliano, L. (2016, November 29). Universal screening increases the representation of low-income and minority students in gifted education. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 113(48), 13678–13683. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1605043113

Center for Academic, Social, and Emotional Learning (CASEL). (2021a). Overview of SEL: Social and emotional learning. https://casel.org/overview-sel/

Center for Academic, Social, and Emotional Learning (CASEL). (2021b). What is SEL?: SEL is… https://casel.org/what-is-sel/

Chetty, R. (2015). The impacts of neighborhoods on economic opportunity: New evidence and policy lessons [PowerPoint slides]. Brookings Institute. https://www.brookings.edu/wp-content/uploads/2015/05/RajChettyv2.pdf.

Chetty, R., Hendren, N., Jones, M.R., & Porter, S.R. (2020). Race and economic opportunity in the United States: An intergenerational perspective. Quarterly Journal of Economics, 135(2), 711–783. https://doi.org/10.1093/qje/qjz042

Chetty, R., Hendren, N., Kline, P., & Saez, E. (2014). Where is the land of opportunity? The geography of intergenerational mobility in the United States. Quarterly Journal of Economics, 219(4), 1553–1623. https://doi.org/10.3386/w19843

Child and Adolescent Health Measurement Initiative. (n.d.). National Survey of Children’s Health interactive data query (2018-2019): Oregon. Data Resource Center for Child and Adolescent Health supported by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA), Maternal and Child Health Bureau (MCHB). Retrieved March 3, 2021, from www.childhealthdata.org.

Curry-Stevens, A., Cross-Hemmer, A., & Coalition of Communities of Color. (2010). Communities of color in Multnomah County: An unsettling profile. Portland State University. https://www.portlandoregon.gov/oehr/article/713238

Curry-Stevens, A., & Muthanna, J. S. (2016). In defense of culturally specific organizations: Understanding the rationale and the evidence. Advances in Applied Sociology, 6(2), 67–80. https://doi.org/10.4236/aasoci.2016.62007

Darling-Hammond, L. (2004). The color line in American education: Race, resources, and student achievement. Du Bois Review, 1(2), 213–246. https://doi.org/10.1017/S1742058X0404202X

Devaney, E. (2015, July 27). Beyond the bell: Research to action in the afterschool and expanded learning field: Supporting social and emotional learning through quality afterschool programs. American Institutes for Research. https://www.air.org/sites/default/files/downloads/report/Social-and-Emotional-Development-Afterschool-Programs.pdf

Duncan, G., Magnuson, K., Murnane, R. & Votruba-Drzal, E. (2019, July). Income inequality and the well-being of American families. Family Relations, 68(3), 313–325. https://doi.org/10.1111/fare.12364

Duncan, G., & Murnane, R. J. (2011). Whither opportunity?: Rising inequality, schools, and children’s life chances. Russell Sage Foundation & Spencer Foundation.

Durlak, J., Weissberg, R., & Pachan, M. (2010, March 19). A meta-analysis of after-school programs that seek to promote personal and social skills in children and adolescents. American Journal of Community Psychology, 45(3-4), 294–309. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10464-010-9300-6

EcoNorthwest & KairosPDX. (2017, September). Black students in Oregon. http://kairospdx.org/wp-content/uploads/2012/12/Final-Report-Black-Students-in-Oregon.pdf

Edwards, C. P., & Kutaka, T. S. (2015) Diverse perspectives of parents, diverse concepts of parent involvement and participation: What can they suggest to researchers? In S.M. Sheridan & E. Moorman Kim (Eds.), Foundational aspects of family-school partnership research (pp. 35–54). Springer International Publishing.

Farrington, C. A., et al. (2012, June). Teaching adolescents to become learners: The role of noncognitive factors in shaping school performance: A critical literature review. Consortium on Chicago School Research. https://consortium.uchicago.edu/publications/teaching-adolescents-become-learners-role-noncognitive-factors-shaping-school

Gray, D. L., Hope, E. C., & Matthews, J. S. (2018). Black and belonging at school: A case for interpersonal, instructional, and institutional opportunity structures. Educational Psychologist, 53(2), 97–113. https://doi.org/10.1080/00461520.2017.1421466

Gamse, B. C., Spielberger, J., Axelrod, J., Spain, A., & Burke, S. (2019). Using data to strengthen afterschool planning, management, and strategy: Lessons from eight cities. Chapin Hall Center for Children at the University of Chicago. https://www.wallacefoundation.org/knowledge-center/Documents/2019-Using-data-to-strengthen-afterschool-planning-management-strategy.pdf

Goldberg, R., Sharvit, H. R., & Singh, P. (2018). Fertile ground for philanthropy. In E. Devaney & D. A. Moroney (Eds.), Social and emotional learning in out-of-school time: Foundations and futures (pp. 221–242). Information Age Publishing.  

Grantmakers for Effective Organizations & Research Center for Leadership in Action, NYU Wagner. (2012). Learn and let learn: Supporting learning communities for innovation and impact. https://wagner.nyu.edu/files/leadership/img/RCLAGEOLearnAndLetLearn.pdf

Greenberg Motamedi, J., Serrano, D., & Hanson, H. (2020). Oregon MESA: Increasing the odds of high school graduation. Education Northwest. http://oregonmesa.org/wp-content/uploads/2020/10/MESA_Increasing_the_odds_of_graduation.pdf

Grossman, J., Campbell, M., & Raley, B. (2007). Quality time after school: What instructors can do to enhance learning. Public/ Private Ventures.

Explore SEL. (March 3, 2021). About Explore SEL. Taxonomy Project, Harvard University. http://exploresel.gse.harvard.edu/about/

Hirsch, B. J., Mekinda, M. A., & Stawicki, J. A. (2010). More than attendance: The importance of after-school program quality. American Journal of Community Psychology, 45(3–4), 447–452. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10464-010-9310-4

Jackson, C. K., Johnson, L. M., & Persico, C. (2015, February). The effects of school spending on educational and economic outcomes: Evidence from school finance reforms. The Quarterly Journal of Economics, 131(1), 157–218. https://doi.org/10.1093/qje/qjv036

Kidron, Y., & Lindsay, J. (2014). The effects of increased learning time on student academic and nonacademic outcomes: Findings from a meta-analytic review. (REL 2014–015). U.S. Department of Education, Institute of Education Sciences, National Center for Education Evaluation and Regional Assistance, Regional Educational Laboratory Appalachia. https://doi.org/10.13140/RG.2.2.35710.59204

Krauss, S. M., Pittman, K. J., & Johnson, C. (2016, March 4). Ready by design: The science (and art) of youth readiness. The Forum for Youth Investment.

Kreider, H. & Cunningham, S. (2011). A typology of family engagement in youth development settings. In H. Kreider & H. Westmoreland (Eds.), Promising practices for family engagement in out-of-school time (pp. 21–30). Information Age Publishing.

Ladson-Billings, G. (2006). From the achievement gap to the education debt: Understanding achievement in U.S. schools. Educational Researcher, 35(7), 3–12. https://doi.org/10.3102/0013189X035007003

Larson, R. W., Rickmann, A. N., Gibbons, C. M., & Walker, K. C. (2009, Spring). Practitioner expertise: Creating quality within the daily tumble of events in youth settings. New Directions for Youth Development, 121, 71–88. https://doi.org/10.1002/yd.297

Leonard, K. F., Janssen, C., & Cantor, B. (2021).  From quantity to quality: Lessons learned from an ongoing statewide initiative. In C. A. Russell & C. Newhouse, (Eds.), Measure, use, improve!: Data use in out-of-school time (pp. 111–127). Information Age Publishing.

Little, P. (2006). Exploring quality in after school programs for middle school-age youth. Harvard Family Research Project, Harvard Graduate School of Education.

Mahoney, J. L., Durlak, J. A., & Weissberg, R. P. (2018, December). An update on social and emotional learning outcome research. Phi Delta Kappan, 100(4), 18–23. https://doi.org/10.1177/0031721718815668

Mattingly, B., Schaefer, A., Gagnon, D., & Leonard, S. (2015, March 10). Gaps in youth opportunity by state: Oregon. University of New Hampshire, Carsey School of Public Policy.

McCombs, J. S., Whitaker, A., & Yoo, P. Y. (2017). The value of out-of-school time programs. RAND Corporation.

Naftzger, N., Hallberg, K., & Yang, T. (2014, July). Exploring the relationship between afterschool program quality and youth outcomes. American Institutes for Research.

Naftzger, N. (2016, September). Motivation, engagement, and beliefs: Survey validation report. American Institutes for Research.

Bonnie, R. J., & Backes, E. P. (Eds.). (2019). The Promise of adolescence: Realizing the promise for all youth. National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. https://doi.org/10.17226/25388

National Academies of Sciences, Engineering and Medicine. (2019, May). The Promise of adolescence: Realizing the promise for all youth [Consensus study report highlights]. https://www.nap.edu/resource/25388/Adolescent%20Development.pdf

Oregon Department of Education. (2020). Statewide report card, 2019–2020. https://www.oregon.gov/ode/schools-and-districts/reportcards/Documents/rptcard2020.pdf

Partee, G., Brand, B., Pearson, S., & Hare, Rachel. (2006, January 1). Helping youth succeed through out-of-school time programs. American Youth Policy Forum. 

Patton, M.Q., & MartinRogers, N. (2018). Evaluation of culturally specific after-school programs in Saint Paul: Project SPIRIT and American Indian Youth Enrichment. Utilization-Focused Evaluation & Wilder Research.

Pierce, K. M., Bolt, D. M., & Vandell, D. L. (2010, June). Specific features of after-school program quality: Associations with children’s functioning in middle childhood. American Journal of Community Psychology, 45, 381–393. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10464-010-9304-2

Ramaswamy, R., McGovern, G., & Akiva, T. (2013). Introduction to the active-participatory approach. The Forum for Youth Investment.

Romero, C. (2018, October). What we know about belonging from scientific research. Student Experience Network. http://studentexperiencenetwork.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/11/What-We-Know-About-Belonging.pdf

Rowe, C. (2017, April 2). Gifted programs across Washington leave out Black and Latino students—but Federal Way is one model for change. The Seattle Times. https://www.seattletimes.com/education-lab/gifted-programs-across-washington-leave-out-Black-and-latino-students-except-in-federal-way/

Ruffenach, C., & Worcel, S. (2017). Toward a thriving future: Closing the opportunity gap for Oregon’s kids. Oregon Community Foundation. https://oregoncf.org/assets/PDFs-and-Docs/PDFs/top-2017-online.pdf

Schwartz, H. L., Hamilton, L. S., et al. (2020). Early lessons from schools and out-of-school time programs implementing social and emotional learning. RAND Corporation.

SEARCH Institute. (2020). Insights and Evidence: The Intersection of developmental relationships, equitable environments and SEL [Insights & Evidence series]. https://www.search-institute.org/wp-content/uploads/2020/10/Insights-Evidence-DRs-DEI.SEL-FINAL.pdf

Shores, K., Kim, H. E., & Still, M. (2020). Categorical inequality in black and white: Linking disproportionality across multiple educational outcomes. American Educational Research Journal, 57(5), 2089–2131. https://doi.org/10.3102/0002831219900128

Skoog-Hoffman, A., et al. (2020, December.) Evidence-based social and emotional learning programs: CASEL criteria updates and rationale. Center for Academic, Social, and Emotional Learning (CASEL). https://casel.org/wp-content/uploads/2021/01/11_CASEL-Program-Criteria-Rationale.pdf

Smith, C., Akiva, T., Sugar, S., Lo, Y. J., Frank, K. A., Peck, S. C., Cortina, K. S., & Devaney, T. (2012). Continuous quality improvement in afterschool settings: Impact findings from the Youth Program Quality Intervention study. David P. Weikart Center for Youth Program Quality at The Forum for Youth Investment. http://cypq.org/sites/cypq.org/files/YPQITech%20_2-29_12.pdf

Strack, R. W., Magill, C., & McDonagh, K. (2004). Engaging youth through photovoice. Health Promotion Practice, 5(1), 49–58. https://doi.org/10.1177/1524839903258015

Tagle, R. A. (2011). Empowering families to guide and advocate for their children’s education: Lessons from the Higher Achievement program. In H. Kreider & H. Westmoreland (Eds.), Promising practices for family engagement in out-of school time (pp. 69–82).  Information Age Publishing.

Urban League of Portland. (2015). State of Black Oregon 2015. https://ulpdx.org/sites/default/files/2020-03/State-Of-Black-Oregon-2015.pdf

UNICEF Office of Research–Innocenti. (2017). The Adolescent brain: A second window of opportunity: A Compendium. https://www.unicef-irc.org/publications/pdf/adolescent_brain_a_second_window_of_opportunity_a_compendium.pdf

Vandell, D. (2013). Afterschool program quality and student outcomes: Reflections on positive key findings on learning and development from recent research. In T. K. Peterson (Ed.), Expanding minds and opportunities: Leveraging the power of afterschool and summer learning for student success. The Expanded Learning & Afterschool Project. https://www.expandinglearning.org/expandingminds/article/afterschool-program-quality-and-student-outcomes-reflections-positive-key

Walton, G. M., & Spencer, S. J. (2009, September). Latent ability: Grades and test scores systematically underestimate the intellectual ability of negatively stereotyped students. Psychological Science, 20(9), 1132–1139. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9280.2009.02417.x

Yohalem, N., Wilson-Ahlstrom, A., Fischer, S., & Shinn, M. (2009, January). Measuring youth program quality: A guide to assessment tools (2nd ed.). The Forum for Youth Investment.

Yohalem, N., & Wilson-Ahlstrom, A. (2010, June). Inside the black box: Assessing and improving quality in youth programs. American Journal of Community Psychology, 45(3-4), 350–357. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10464-010-9311-3